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A multimodal approach to non-invasive diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a pilot study

Elina A. Genina,1,2, Yury I. Surkov,1,2, Isabella A. Serebryakova,1,2, Ekaterina N. Lazareva,1,2, Vadim D. Genin,1,2, Sergey M. Zaytsev,1, Alexey N. Bashkatov,1,2, Mohammad Ali Ansari,3, Yana K. Kuzinova,4, Olga M. Konopatskova,4, Valery V. Tuchin,1,2,5 1 Saratov State University,Saratov, Russia; 2 Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia; 3 Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran;
4 Saratov State Medical University, Saratov, Russia; 5 Institute of Precision Mechanics and Control RAS, Saratov, Russia


Multimodal approach in combined with optical clearing, based on the reduction of light scattering in tissues due to the partial replacement of the interstitial fluid with biologically compatible hyperosmotic immersion agents increases the effectiveness of methods of optical diagnostics of cancer.
In this study, a combination of high–resolution ultrasound examination and optical methods (Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and backscattered diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) were used. OCT measurements were combined with the use of biocompatible optical clearing agents.
The study involved light-skinned volunteers with basal cell carcinoma and benign neoplasms and volunteers with high pigmented health skin. Differentiation of neoplasms was carried out using morphological research.
It was found that the skin scattering in the area of neoplasms is significantly reduced compared to healthy skin, there was an increased content of hemoglobin in the oxygenated form. For cancer, a characteristic feature was a low content of lipids and keratin. In the area of benign neoplasms, increased content of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and keratin was observed. The sizes of neoplasms were evaluated using ultrasound examination, and their internal structure was visualized using OCT.
The reported study was funded by the grant of RFBR (#20-52-56005) and INSF (#98029460), the grant of RFBR (#20-32-90043) and the grant under the Degree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 220 of 09 April 2010 (Agreement No. 075-15-2021-615 of 04 June 2021).


Elina A. Genina
Saratov State University


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