Detection of melanoma tumor cells in vivo and in vitro
According to the WHO there was 18.1 million new cases of cancer and 9.6 million deaths caused by it in 2018. One of the main causes of mortality for cancer patients is the late diagnosis of the disease. In addition, the currently existing clinical, instrumental, laboratory, histological, and other methods do not provide reliably identificationof risks for tumor metastasis, tumor damage of the regional lymph nodes and distant organs. At the same time, the early detection of signs of tumor progression is most important for effective and timely treatment of the patient. In this regard, the development of the most sensitive methods for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the patient’s blood iscrucial.
The main purpose of the study is the assessment of the possibility to detect CTCs in vivo and in vitro in the blood of patients with a clinically diagnosed stage I and II melanoma. Brightfield and confocal microscopy methods have severe limitations for detection of CTCs and tumor cells in a tissue suspension. This limitations include the following:
- a small amount of CTC in the total volume of peripheral blood at an early stage of development of melanoma;
- the specificity of the methods used reduces the volume of the studied material (while making samples for confocal microscopy, most of the selected cells are lost during successive washing of samples at the staining stages);
- the structural, functional and antigenic heterogeneity of the CTC does not allow us to identify unified criteria for the detection of their optical or morphological characteristics, specific receptors on the surface.
- It is important to develop new methods that overcome the limitations of microscopy in early detection of circulating tumor cells, such as photoacoustic flow cytometry.
This work is supported by Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation 14.Z50.31.0044 “Photoacoustic technologies for early theranostics of metastatic tumors”.
Dmitrienko Ekaterina Alexandrovna
a student of the Saratov State Medical University. V.I. Razumovsky 5th year of the Faculty of Dentistry
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